OP2177. DER ROSENKAVALIER, Live Performance, 30 May, 1965, w.Pritchard Cond. London Phil. & Glyndebourne Ensemble; Montserrat Caballé, Teresa Zylis-Gara, Edith Mathis, Otto Edelmann, etc. (China) 3-Glyndebourne GFOCD 010-65, Gatefold Edition w.Elaborate 178pp. hardcover book featuring libretto, illus. & numerous photos. Final Sealed Copy! - 878280000108
“This performance of Strauss’ most popular opera was recorded from the stage of the Glyndebourne Theatre on 30 May, 1965, before an enthusiastic audience….As for the cast, Montserrat Caballé, in superb vocal fettle, turns out to be a very good Marschallin. Her pure, gorgeous voice, with its many shadings, allows her to exploit the tonal beauty of the music without scanting the words in a way that few Marschallins can achieve. Her high pianissimos, almost a trademark of her singing, are remarkably effective in the final scene of Act I….Teresa Zylis-Gara…also has a smooth and attractive voice, and she acts the teen-age lover with passionate vigor….Glyndebourne’s presentation is, as always, lavish….The sound is the best I’ve heard in any Glyndebourne release. This set is worth acquiring for several reasons, but especially for Caballé’s Marschallin.”
- Kurt Moses, AMERICAN RECORD GUIDE, Sept./Oct., 2011
“Teresa Zylis-Gara studied for nine years with Olga Olgina. In 1954 she won first prize at the Polish Young Vocalists Contest in Warsaw which led to engagements to sing on the Polish National Radio and to perform as a soloist with the Kraków Philharmonic. In 1956 she made her professional opera debut with Opera Krakowska in the title role of Stanisław Moniuszko's HALKA. She returned there the following year to portray the title role Puccini's MADAMA BUTTERFLY.
In 1958 Zylis-Gara won 2nd prize at the Concours of Toulouse and in 1960 she won 3rd prize at the International Music Contest in Munich. The latter competition win led to her engagement at the opera house in Oberhausen and from this moment on her career was largely centered in Germany for the next decade. She continued her voice training in Germany with Dietger Jacob. She was offered a long term contract with the Dortmund Opera in 1962, singing there for the next three years.
In the mid 1960s Zylis-Gara began to become a major presence on the international stage, beginning in 1965 with her debut at the Glyndebourne Festival as Octavian in DER ROSENKAVALIER. She later returned to that festival in 1967 to sing Donna Elvira in Mozart's DON GIOVANNI. In 1966 she performed for the first time at the Palais Garnier in Paris which led to a contract with the Opéra National de Paris through 1969. The year 1968 proved to be a banner year for Zylis-Gara. She made her Royal Opera, London debut as Violetta in Verdi's LA TRAVIATA and sang Donna Elvira for her debuts at the Salzburg Festival in the summer, the San Francisco Opera on November 8 and her Metropolitan Opera debut on December 17.
Rudolf Bing, General Manager of the Metropolitan Opera, was highly impressed with Zylis-Gara's debut performance and offered her a long term contract with the company beginning in January 1970 with the role of Pamina in Mozart's THE MAGIC FLUTE. She remained on the Met roster for the next 14 seasons, portraying such roles as Countess Almaviva in Mozart's NOZZE, Amelia in Verdi's UN BALLO IN MASCHERA, Cio-Cio-San in MADAMA BUTTERFLY, Desdemona in Verdi's OTELLO, Elisabeth in Wagner's TANNHÄUSER, Elsa in his LOHENGRIN, Fiordiligi in Mozart's COSÌ FAN TUTTE, Leonora in Verdi's IL TROVATORE, Liù in Puccini's TURANDOT, Marguerite in Gounod's FAUST, Mimì in Puccini's LA BOHÈME, Octavian, Tatiana in Tchaikovsky's EUGENE ONEGIN, Violetta, and the title roles in Cilea's ADRIANA LECOUVREUR, and Puccini's SUOR ANGELICA and TOSCA. Her final and 233rd performance at the Met was in the title role of Puccini's MANON LESCAUT on March 31, 1984 with Vasile Moldoveanu as Des Grieux, Allan Monk as Lescaut, and Nello Santi conducting.
In the 1970s Zylis-Gara continued to work as a freelance artist while the Met was her principal home. She was particularly active at the Deutsche Oper Berlin and the Vienna State Opera. She sang annually at the Royal Opera, London from 1976-1980. She was also a soloist at La Scala in Milan, Teatr Wielki in Warsaw, the Teatro Colón in Buenos Aires, the Teatro Real in Madrid, the Lyric Opera of Chicago, and the Bolshoi Theatre in Moscow.”
“Montserrat Caballé, the Spanish soprano widely counted among the last of the old-time prima donnas for the transcendent purity of her voice, the sweeping breadth of her repertory and the delirious adulation of her fans, was one of the foremost opera singers of the second half of the 20th century. Ms. Caballé was an enduring, vibrant international presence, appearing at the Metropolitan Opera, with which she sang 98 times; Covent Garden; La Scala and elsewhere, as well as at the opening ceremony of the 1992 Olympic Games in Barcelona. She was also widely heard in recital, for many years making an annual appearance at Carnegie Hall.
Ms. Caballé was, critics concurred, one of the sublime representatives of a type of diva most often associated with a bygone, golden era: smolderingly regal, seemingly inscrutable, a larger-than-life presence accorded godlike status by her reverential public. Ms. Caballé’s exalted status was won by virtue of the vast number of roles at her command (more than 100, an almost unheard-of tally, from fleet, silvery Mozart to weighty Richard Strauss and weightier Wagner) and the length of her performing life (she sang publicly until she was well into her 60s, more than a decade after a singer’s usual retirement age).
Her recitals were often interrupted mid-song - after she had tossed off an especially intricate passage or scaled a particularly daring height - with wild cheering, foot-stomping and cries of ‘Brava!’. On one occasion, at Avery Fisher Hall in New York in 1983, a fistfight nearly erupted in the audience, with adulatory screamers on one side and pugilistic purists, demanding silence, on the other. But above all - and this is what moved her fans to ardor in the first place - there was the voice itself.
For sheer vocal glory, reviewers wrote, few voices, if any, could rival Ms. Caballé’s. She was possessed of a lyric soprano that, though light and shimmering, was not without heft. It was renowned for its riverine suppleness, and for an ethereal translucence that few other voices could equal. Over nearly half a century, critics invoked adjectives to describe Ms. Caballé’s sound that would read as staggering hyperbole for almost anyone else: ‘She possesses’, STEREO REVIEW magazine said of Ms. Caballé in 1992, ‘one of the most beautiful voices ever to issue from a human throat’.
Ms. Caballé displayed a noteworthy consistency of timbre throughout her range, largely sparing listeners the audible gear-shifting that can occur when singers move from low notes to high. Though she was not strictly a coloratura soprano, the innate flexibility of her instrument let her essay the Olympian heights of some coloratura works with ease. She was especially esteemed for her ability to spin out haunting, sustained pianissimos - the whisper-quiet passages that are among the most demanding tests of a singer’s mettle, entailing diaphragm strength and breath control akin to an athlete’s. All of these qualities made her voice particularly well suited to the bel canto repertory, consisting of elegant, filigreed works by 19th-century Italians like Rossini, Donizetti and Bellini. As a result of her prowess in that genre, Ms. Caballé was acknowledged to have helped spur a bel canto revival on opera and concert stages round the world at midcentury and beyond. She was also adept in other genres, counting among her repertory German lieder; the Spanish dramatic songs known as zarzuelas; the operas of Verdi, for which she was widely known; Richard Strauss’s Salome, which she called her favorite operatic role; and the title part in Donizetti’s LUCREZIA BORGIA, which propelled her to international stardom after a single performance in 1965.
Ms. Caballé’s evident devotion to tone over text, reviewers complained, could result in diction so slipshod that it bordered on anarchy. At times she would actually substitute nonsense syllables for a song’s text, when she appeared to feel that the words as written, with their congestion of consonants, would impede the flow of pure, vowelly sound. She was no actress, critics agreed, a consensus in which Ms. Caballé cheerfully concurred. And her ample frame, reviewers sometimes noted, cut an unpersuasive figure of the consumptive heroine - think of Mimì in Puccini’s LA BOHEME that is grand opera’s stock-in-trade.
Ms. Caballé also developed a reputation for pulling out of scheduled performances, a source of chronic irritation to reviewers and chronic disappointment to fans. ‘It is a standard joke in the business’, the music critic Will Crutchfield wrote in THE NEW YORK TIMES in 1986, ‘that ‘Mme. Caballé is available for only a limited number of cancellations this season’. And yet … there was the voice, for in the end, when it came to appraisals of Ms. Caballé, it was always the voice that carried the day. Writing in NEWSDAY in 1994, the critic Tim Page encapsulated the perennial contradictions of her art. ‘We attend Montserrat Caballé concerts for one reason - with the hope of being transported’, he wrote. ‘There are many more versatile artists, many more incisive interpreters and - God knows -many more venturesome programmers. But when Caballé is ‘on’ -as she was sporadically during her Tuesday night recital at Carnegie Hall - there is no more beautiful voice in the world’. That voice, Ms. Caballé often said, had been a gift from God - one on which she had built rigorous, hard-won training that her impoverished childhood had very nearly placed out of reach.
Named for Our Lady of Montserrat, the patron saint of Catalonia, Maria de Montserrat Viviana Concepción Caballé i Folch was born in Barcelona on April 12, 1933.
Amid the Depression, and the Spanish Civil War, she was reared in poverty. (In interviews throughout her career, Ms. Caballé diplomatically expressed equal pride in her Catalan and Spanish backgrounds. She was also circumspect about whether her family had been Republicans, supporting Spain’s democratically elected government, or Nationalists, supporting the military dictator Francisco Franco.) What was plain was that during those years, her family, formerly middle class, knew great hardship. Long afterward, when she was safely swathed in the jewels and furs that are a diva’s prerogative, Ms. Caballé recalled a time when she owned only a single dress. To the sneers of her classmates, she wore it to school every day for a year. It was clear that the child had a remarkable talent. Though her parents could scarcely afford it, she soon began studies at the Conservatori Superior de Música del Liceu in Barcelona, first on the piano and then, as a young teenager, in voice. Her primary voice teacher, Eugenia Kemeny, made her pupils spend a full year doing vocal exercises and breath training before they could approach real music. That training, Ms. Caballé would say afterward, let her sustain her career as long as she did.
When Montserrat was about 16, her father fell ill and could not support the family, forcing her to withdraw from the conservatory. She worked for nearly a year in a handkerchief factory before attracting the sponsorship of wealthy Barcelona patrons, who agreed to support Montserrat and her family. In gratitude, she returned annually throughout her career to sing in Barcelona. At 20, Ms. Caballé graduated from the conservatory with its gold medal for voice and embarked on auditions with Italian opera companies. Nervous and untried, she failed at all of them, inspiring one agent, she recalled, to suggest she forsake singing and find a husband. Trying her luck in Switzerland, she caught on with the Basel Opera in 1956, singing small roles until she was called upon to sing Mimì in place of an ailing soprano. She spent the rest of the ’50s and early ’60s singing throughout Europe.
Ms. Caballé remained relatively unknown in the United States until April 20, 1965. She had been engaged to fill in that night for an indisposed Marilyn Horne, singing Lucrezia Borgia in a concert production by the American Opera Society at Carnegie Hall. Reviewing the performance in The Times, Raymond Ericson wrote: ‘Miss Caballé had only to sing her initial romanza, a typically melting Donizetti aria with small vocal flourishes, and it was apparent that here was a singer not only with a beautifully pure voice but an outstanding command of vocal style. It was not surprising that so early in the opera the audience stopped the performance for five minutes with its applause and cheers’. The performance established Ms. Caballé’s international career. She made her Met debut in December 1965, singing Marguerite in Gounod’s FAUST.
Ms. Caballé’s career was not without difficulties. Over the years, she endured a series of illnesses, including phlebitis, a heart attack and a benign brain tumor, resulting in missed performances. ‘I don’t cancel because of temperament’, she told THE CHICAGO TRIBUNE in 1995. ‘I have had seven major surgeries in my life. I have had tumors. I have had two children with Caesareans; you don’t just get up and sing the day after one of those’.
But ultimately it is Ms. Caballé’s transcendent voice, preserved on dozens of recordings, that will doubtless be remembered. Among the most highly regarded are two for RCA: a LUCREZIA, with Shirley Verrett and Alfredo Kraus, conducted by Jonel Perlea, and a SALOME, with Sherrill Milnes and Regina Resnik, under the baton of Erich Leinsdorf.”
- Margalit Fox. THE NEW YORK TIMES, 6 Oct., 2018
"After me, there is only Caballé."
- Zinka Milanov, as quoted in Leonardo A. Ciampa's THE TWILIGHT OF BELCANTO, p.82
"Otto Edelmann, a leading Austrian bass-baritone of the postwar period particularly known for his interpretations of Wagner and Strauss roles, had a long association with the Vienna State Opera, where he sang for 30 years, and also had a close relationship with the Metropolitan Opera, where he made his début in 1954 as Hans Sachs in Wagner's DIE MEISTERSINGER and sang until April 1976. His final Met role was Baron Ochs in Strauss' DER ROSENKAVALIER, one of his signature roles, which he first performed in 1952 at La Scala with Elisabeth Schwarzkopf and Herbert von Karajan. That performance is still available as an audio recording; there is also a video of a Salzburg production with the same principals.
Born in Brunn am Gebirge, Austria, in 1917, Mr. Edelmann studied in Vienna with Theodor Lierhammer and Gunnar Graarud and had his first engagement in Mozart's LE NOZZE DI FIGARO in Gera, Germany, at the age of 20. He was subsequently engaged as a company bass in Nuremberg, where he sang his first Waldner in ARABELLA under the baton of the opera's composer, Richard Strauss. In World War II he was conscripted into the German army and spent two years as a Soviet prisoner of war before returning to the stage in 1947, first in Graz, Austria, and soon thereafter with the company of the Vienna State Opera, with whom he made his début as the Hermit in Weber's DER FREISCHÜTZ. A FALSTAFF in 1950 under Clemens Krauss, followed by appearances in the first postwar Bayreuth festival as Hans Sachs and in the Beethoven Ninth under Wilhelm Furtwängler, sealed Mr. Edelmann's status as a leading bass-baritone of his day. While his European career included Italian roles like Verdi's Falstaff and King Philip in DON CARLOS, and French ones like Méphistophèles in Gounod's FAUST, the Met kept him to the German repertory, presenting him as Sachs, Wotan, King Marke and, of course, Baron Ochs. As Ochs, he also opened the rebuilt Festspielhaus in Salzburg in 1960. In December 1976 Mr. Edelmann sang his last performance, a final Waldner in Vienna, and turned to teaching at the Vienna Music Academy.”
- Anne Midgette, THE NEW YORK TIMES, 16 May, 2003