P1272. WILHELM KEMPFF, w.Munch Cond. RTF S.O.: Piano Concerto #4 in G (Beethoven), Live Performance, 20 Sept., 1964, Montreux; w.Martinon Cond. Chicago Orchestra: Piano Concerto in a (Schumann), Live Performance, 3 Nov., 1966, Orchestra Hall. (Canada) St Laurent Studio YSL T-625. Transfers by Yves St Laurent.
“One of the twentieth century's most important pianists, Wilhelm Kempff found warmth in Beethoven where many others discovered only stress and passion. Concentrating on the composers of the late Classical and early-to-middle Romantic periods, Kempff achieved graceful, amiable results while not neglecting the sterner core of this music. His nobility of purpose was everywhere evident, made manifest through lucid textures, an adherence to a flowing legato, and tonal shading. In addition, he was a composer whose oeuvre included two symphonies, four operas, songs, and solo piano works.
In 1914, Kempff traveled to Potsdam for studies at the Viktoriagymnasium before returning to Berlin to finish his work at the Hochschule and enroll at the university. At age 20, Kempff served as organist and pianist on a tour of Germany and Scandinavia by the Berlin Cathedral Choir. A successful 1917 piano recital at the Berlin Singakademie led to an engagement the following year with the Berlin Philharmonic, the first of innumerable collaborations with that august ensemble. During the 1920s and 1930s, he toured South America and Japan, as well as many parts of Europe, adding to his reputation for uncompromising musicianship and personable interpretation. At the same time, he taught, serving first as director at the Stuttgart Musikhochschule from 1924 to 1929 and, later, as piano instructor at Potsdam's Mamorpalais for the decade before WWII. The war kept his activities confined to Germany, but with its end, Kempff once more resumed a busy performance schedule.
England and America heard Kempff only later. In London, the public, including a large number of German émigrés, applauded him upon his first appearance there in 1951. Not until 1964 did New York hear the pianist in person, although by then his many Deutsche Grammophon recordings had already established his stature for Americans. Indeed, Kempff's long and fruitful relationship with that label had brought to the market a long list of desirable recordings, among them the complete Beethoven piano concerti; the sonatas; a relaxed, but rewarding survey with Wolfgang Schneiderhan of the Beethoven violin sonatas; and various collections of Schubert, Schumann, Chopin, and Brahms."
- Erik Eriksson, allmusic.com
“Wilhelm Kempff describes the environment in which he grew up as an environment steeped in music and Protestantism. Within his strong family tradition of church organists, he heard Bach’s organ repertoire daily, as well as the conversations among family members about Bach’s organ chorales and the Lutheran faith. His family background was strongly linked to Kempff’s musical life. Furthermore, the educational reform that occurred in the State of Prussia at the beginning of the nineteenth century had an impact on Kempff’s family. As a part of the new education system, music was emphasized as a core and mandatory subject for preparation of the sacred service. With this educational reform system, church music and public school education were closely connected. His first teacher was his father, also named Wilhelm Kempff. After subsequent lessons with Ida Schmidt-Schlesicke, he entered the Berlin Hochschule fur Musik at the age of 9. In 1906 Kempff began to study composition with Robert Kahn and in 1909 he studied piano with Heinrich Barth who was the premier piano and organ pedagogue in Prussia at that time. He played to Busoni, heard Eugen d’Albert (one of Liszt’s greatest pupils), and his own teacher, Heinrich Barth, and had been a prize pupil of Hans von Bülow, Liszt’s son-in-law. Kempff wrote about d’Albert and Busoni in detail in his autobiography. These two great pianists, both of whom transcribed Bach’s organ chorale preludes for solo piano, were important musical influences for Kempff. Eugen d’Albert was the first pianist about whom Kempff wrote in his autobiography.
Kempff attended a concert with the Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra, where d’Albert played Beethoven’s ‘Emperor’ Concerto and Liszt’s Piano Concerto #1. Kempff wrote about the night he listened to d’Albert’s performance: ‘For this was no mere piano playing, but rather a creator who seemed to be creating a whole new world, a world built of tones’. After the concert Kempff encountered d’Albert and had a personal conversation with him about piano technique. D’Albert told Kempff that the piano technique must ‘be joined with the soul and fused into an inseparable union’. The second musical figure that Kempff identifies in his autobiography as an important influence is Ferruccio Busoni. Kempff wrote that the reason why Busoni was a great Bach transcriber was because of Busoni’s sublime spirituality. In Kempff’s private lessons with Busoni, Busoni discussed many aspects of performing piano transcriptions of Bach’s organ works, such as the voicing of the cantus firmus and the various ways of handling texture. Kempff wrote about this experience: ‘[Busoni says] our organ [piano] has only one keyboard, but it can sound like it has many manuals! I am even such a heretic that I believe that most of Bach’s chorale preludes sound better on our contemporary piano than they do on the organ… he [Busoni] brought the chorale ‘Now, Good Christian Men Rejoice’ to life. I [Kempff] don’t say that he ‘played’, because it was much more than that. I was hearing three voices becoming a unified whole,… As Busoni ended the chorale, the boy [Kempff] nodded very quietly. He had understood.…’
In 1924 when Kempff was twenty-nine years old, he was appointed the director of the Württembergische Hochschule für Musik in Stuttgart. He also taught piano classes and conducted his own compositions from 1924-1929. In addition, Kempff also implemented a new department for church music. Kempff’s work with his piano class at the Wurttemberg Conservatory was highly successful from the very beginning. The friendly and relaxed relationship with his students was a precursor for the way he would later conduct his summer courses, first in Potsdam, and after World War II, in Positano. After his directorship at the conservatory in Stuttgart, Kempff began teaching and directing the summer courses for piano in Potsdam, Deutsches Musikinstitut für Ausländer-Sommerkurse in Potsdam. The summer courses allowed him to teach advanced students from around the world. In the summer course Kempff worked with colleagues such as Edwin Fischer, Eugen D’Albert, Leonid Kreutzer, and Walter Gieseking as well as other musicians.
During the next decades Mr. Kempff made concert tours of Germany, Scandinavia, South America and Japan. He rode on the Graf Zeppelin to Buenos Aires in 1934 for a tour; the dirigible received extensive press coverage and was met by a crowd estimated in the millions. Kempff’s début in England was 17 June, 1935 at the Aeolian Hall in London performing a recital with the violinist Cecilia Hansen. During World War II, he performed mostly in Germany and occupied countries by the Germans. He returned to the Paris concert stage 22 November, 1948 and to London 27 October, 1951 at Wigmore Hall. His America début happened during the later years of his life when he gave a recital in Carnegie Hall 15 October, 1964.
In 1957 he began to direct Beethoven courses at Positano, Italy, and maintained a home there thereafter. Until late in life, he regularly offered informal advice to young musicians who would visit him at his home. His last recital was given in Holzhausen, Germany 31 July, 1982. He had suffered from Parkinson’s disease in his last years and died on 23 May, 1991 at his home in Positano, Italy. He was 95 years old.
The most unusual thing about Kempff is that there is, indeed, nothing usual about him. It is not surprising that more or less all our encounters with his recordings have consistently range from delightful to unforgettable. Innocence, we suspect, was not the clue to Kempff’s success. He did not achieve these small miracles just by riding around on the winds of inspiration. Or if indeed innocence is the answer, it is innocence hard won.”
- Michael Waiblinger
“It’s difficult to articulate what makes Münch’s conducting special – or indeed if there even is anything identifiably unique about it. A lesser talent would simply turn out generic, cookie-cutter performances; but Münch was anything but generic. He was one of the most musical of conductors; in so many of his performances, everything simply sounds ‘right’. Certainly, his experience as an orchestral musician gave him a lot of practical insight into the mechanics of directing orchestra traffic. But a classic Münch interpretation never sounds calculated. Spontaneity was one of his hallmarks, sometimes to the surprise and discomfort of the musicians playing under him. From one night to the next, a Münch performance of the same piece might be very different, depending on his mood of the moment – yet it would always sound like Münch.”
- Lawrence Hansen, AMERICAN RECORD GUIDE, Nov./Dec., 2012
“In the words of one of his biographers, conductor Jean Martinon's performances ‘were distinguished by a concern for translucent orchestral textures, and sustained by a subtle sense of rhythm and phrasing’. Occasionally, ‘he stressed a poetic inflection at the expense of literal accuracy’.
Martinon's first instrument was the violin; he studied at the Lyons Conservatory (1924-1925), then transferred to the Paris Conservatory, where he won first prize in violin upon his graduation in 1928. He subsequently studied composition, with Albert Roussel, and conducting, with Charles Munch and Roger Desormiere. Until the outbreak of World War II, Martinon was primarily a composer. His early substantial works include a Symphoniette for piano, percussion, and strings (1935); Symphony #1 (1936); Concerto giocoso for violin and orchestra (1937); and a wind quintet (1938). At the start of the war he was drafted into the French army. Taken prisoner in 1940, he passed the next two years in a Nazi labor camp. There, he wrote’ Stalag IX’ (Musique d'exil), an orchestral piece incorporating elements of jazz; during his internment, he also composed several religious works, including ’Absolve’, ‘Domine’ for male chorus and orchestra, and ‘Psalm 136’ (Chant des captifs), the latter receiving a composition prize from the city of Paris in 1946.
Upon his release from the Nazi camp, Martinon became conductor of the Bordeaux Symphony Orchestra (from 1943 to 1945) and assistant conductor of the Paris Conservatory Orchestra (from 1944 to 1946), then associate conductor of the London Philharmonic (from 1947 to 1949). He toured as a guest conductor as well, although his U.S. debut did not come until 1957, with the Boston Symphony giving the American premiere of his Symphony #2. Although he devoted as much time as he could to composing in the early postwar years -- producing a string quartet (1946), an ‘Irish’ Symphony (1948), the ballet ‘Ambohimang’a (1946), and the opera HÉCUBE (1949-1954) -- he was increasingly occupied with conducting, working with the Concerts Lamoureux (from 1951 to 1957), the Israel Philharmonic (from 1957 to 1959), and Dusseldorf Symphony Orchestra (from 1960 to 1966). Martinon resumed his career as a composer around 1960, writing his Violin Concerto #2 (1960) for Henryk Szeryng, his Cello Concerto (1964) for Pierre Fournier, and his Symphony #4 (‘Altitudes’), composed in 1965, for the 75th anniversary of the Chicago Symphony. He acknowledged Prokofiev and Bartók as strong influences on his scores, which meld Expressionism with French Neoclassicism. Martinon continued composing into the 1970s, but he seldom recorded any of his own music, with the notable exceptions of the Second Symphony, ‘Hymne la vie’ (ORTF, for Barclay Inedits) and Fourth Symphony, ‘Altitudes"’ (Chicago SO, for RCA).
In 1963, he succeeded Fritz Reiner as head of the Chicago Symphony. Martinon's tenure there was difficult. In five seasons, he conducted 60 works by modern European and American composers, and made a number of outstanding LPs for RCA, mostly of bracing twentieth century repertory in audiophile sound. Chicago's conservative music lovers soon sent him packing.
Martinon jumped at the chance to take over the French National Radio Orchestra in 1968; working with this ensemble, he recorded almost the entire standard French repertory for Erato and EMI. His earlier Erato efforts that focused on such secondary but nevertheless interesting figures as Roussel, Pierne, and Dukas, whereas EMI assigned him integral sets of the Saint-Saens symphonies and the orchestral works of Debussy and Ravel, among other projects. In 1974, he was appointed principal conductor of the Residentie Orkest in The Hague, but he died before that relationship could bear much fruit.”
- James Reel, allmusic.com